**Heat and Thermodynamics**

Define first law of thermodynamics with its limitations

Adiabatic and isothermal condiations of thermodynamics

**Wave and Optics**

- Define wave motion.
- Derive the progressive wave equations in a medium.

- Starting with the definition of stationary waves, prove that the distance between any two consecutive nodes or antinodes in a stationary wave is λ2.
- Write an expression for the Newton’s formula for the velocity of sound in air. Explain the necessary correction made by Laplace.
- Define end correction.
- Show that, in open organ pipe, both odd and even harmonics can be produced.

- Define natural frequency.
- Describe an experiment to determine the velocity of sound in air by resonance air column tube method.

- Describe sound wave as a pressure wave and deduce an expression for the pressure amplitude.
- Define beats.
- Obtain an expression for the beat frequency produced by the superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies.

- What is Doppler effect in sound?
- Obtain an expression for the apparent frequency of sound when both source and observer are moving towards each other.

- State Huygen’s law and use it to verify Snell’s law.
- Describe Michelson’s method to determine the velocity of light.
- Define coherent sources of light.
- Describe Young’s double slit experiment and show that the bright fringes and dark fringes are equally spaced.

- Define polarization of light.
- Show that, μ=tanθp, where the symbols have their usual meanings.

**Electricy And Magnesium**

ow can you convert a galvanometer into ammeter (or voltmeter)? Explain.*H*- Discuss the mechanism of metallic conduction.
- Derive a relation between current density and drift velocity. i.e., I=neAvd.

- State and apply Kirchoff’s rule to measure the unknown resistance of a wire by using wheatstone bridge circuit.
- State the principle of meter bridge.
- Describe how it is used to determine the resistance of a wire.

- What is the principle of potentiometer?
- Explain with necessary theory how you would determine the internal resistance of the internal resistance of a cell using this principle.

- What do you mean by thermo electric effect?
- Discuss the variation of thermo emf in a thermo couple with the change in temperature.

- State and explain Biot – Savart’s law.
- Use it to find the magnetic field due to a long straight current carrying conductor.

- State Ampere’s law.
- Deduce an expression for the force between two parallel current carrying wires.

- State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
- Derive an expression for the emf induced in a straight conductor moving at right angles to the direction of a uniform magnetic field.

- State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
- Deduce an expression for the emf induced in a coil rotating uniformly in a uniform magnetic field.

- Explain the principle and working of a transformer.
- Discuss the condition for resonant frequency of LCR alternating current circuit.

**Modern Physics**

- Describe about construction and working principle of Millikan’s oil drop experiment to determine the charge of an electron.
- Define cross field.
- Describe construction and working principle of J.J. Thomson’s experiment to determine specific charge of an electron.

- Define threshold frequency and work function of a metal.
- Explain Einstein’s photoelectric equation.

- Describe the experiment to determine the Planck’s constant.
- State Bohr’s postulates for atomic model.
- Derive the expression for radius of an electron bound to hydrogen atom

- Explain Bragg’s law of diffraction for X – rays.
- What is zener breakdown.
- How can a zener diode be used as a voltage regulator? Explain.

- Define mass defect.
- Explain the significance of graph of binding energy per nucleon versus atomic mass number.

- State the laws of radioactivity. Derive the relation between half-life period and decay constant.